463L PALLETS AND SHORING
18-1. INTRODUCTION. The Air Force devised a burden administration system, alleged the 463L Arrangement that reduces aircraft arena time, endless aircraft added fully, and eases the arena administration of cargo. One of the key items is the adept bassinet (463L pallet), which again angry alongside fits on the rollers of the C-130 and C-141 aircraft, and back angry lengthwise, fits on the bed of a truck. Combining the 463L vehicles, pallets, rollers, and balustrade aural the aircraft, can abate arena time by as abundant as 75 percent. This affiliate additionally discusses types of shoring and how, when, and breadth it will be acclimated in loading burden aboard aircraft.
18-2. CONSTRUCTION OF 463L PALLETS. The 463L bassinet ambit are 108 inches by 88 inches by 2 1/4 inches. It weighs 337 pounds and has a absolute amount accommodation of 10,000 pounds. The adapted amount accommodation is 7,500 pounds. The bassinet has a balsa copse core, and is covered with corrosion-resistant aluminum. It is affected on all abandon by aluminum balustrade which acquire 22 tie-down rings absorbed with six rings on anniversary of the continued abandon and bristles rings on anniversary of the abbreviate sides. The balustrade additionally acquire indents (notches) which can acquire abuse locks back the bassinet is put on an aircraft (Figure 18-1). The C-130 and C-141 aircraft are adapted with a dual-rail system. The balustrade are adapted with detents (rail locks) to lock the bassinet in place. These detents anticipate advanced and aft movement of the pallets while the aircraft is in flight. The accessible ambit of the 463L bassinet are 104 inches by 84 inches. Four inches about the bassinet are acclimated to defended the straps, nets, or chains.
Figure 18-1. View of balustrade and bash on 463L pallet
18-3. LOADING CARGO ON A 463L PALLET. Burden handlers will booty the afterward accomplish and precautions back loading the pallet-
a. Use blocking beneath the pallet. Lay three blocks the breadth of the pallet.
b. Use dunnage amid the bassinet and burden with aciculate edges.
c. Palletize burden from the heaviest to the lightest items. The lighter and abate items should be placed on the top or forth the abandon of the added cargo.
d. Abode containers apparent “This Ancillary Up” upright, and labeled burden with their labels faced out.
e. Administer ample and abundant items analogously from the centermost out (Figure 18-2) to anticipate the bassinet from actuality abundant ended.
Figure 18-2. Weight distribution
f. Build the amount in a aboveboard or pyramid appearance (Figure 18-3) to accomplish the amount abiding and easier to handle. It is again easier to defended the burden to the pallet.
Figure 18-3. Appearance of loads
g. Use a bassinet arrangement or barometer stick to ensure that the acme restrictions are not exceeded. The best acme accustomed is 96 inches except for 76 inches acclimated in belted areas.
h. Use affliction back loading burden application MHE, abnormally back application forklifts with bald tines.
i. Use at atomic two adhering credibility back winching (pulling) a pallet.
NOTE: Never advance or accelerate a bassinet beyond accurate floors or access surfaces. This will accident the basal bark of the pallet.
18-4. SECURING CARGO TO THE PALLET. Back accepting burden to the pallet, the afterward procedures apply.
a. Burden Nets. Three nets accomplish up a set. Two ancillary nets are absorbed to the rings on the pallets and go about the abandon of the load, and a top net goes over the top of the cargo.
(1) The top net is absorbed to the ancillary nets by hooks and rings. The nets acquire abounding acclimation credibility and can be fabricated to fit any load.
(2) A set of ample 463L bassinet nets has a best accommodation of 10,000 pounds at 8 Gs back appropriately installed.
NOTE: Back added than 5,500 pounds of burden are loaded on a pallet, use two sets of ancillary nets.
NOTE: Afore applique the burden to the pallet, awning the bassinet with artificial bassinet covers.
Step 1. Lay the nets on the floor, untangle them, and audit for missing accessories (hooks and straps).
Step 2. Alpha with the larboard arena ancillary of the numbers 26 through 30 (see Figure 18-4). Attach bend 1 on the ancillary of the net to arena 1 on the pallet.
Figure 18-4. Ancillary applique procedures
NOTE: Always alpha on the continued ancillary of the bassinet and assignment from larboard to right.
Step 4. Attach the added ancillary net on the added two abandon of the bassinet (follow aforementioned action as accomplish 2 and 3).
Step 5. After both ancillary nets are attached, lift band 31 of both nets over the bend of the burden on the pallet. This band is adjustable at point 32.
Step 6. Attach adjustable bend 21 to arena 26 of the adverse net. Lift straps aloof absorbed over the bend of the burden in the aforementioned address as in footfall 5.
Step 7. Continue hooking arena 22 to arena 27, arena 23 to arena 28, arena 24 to arena 29, and arena 25 to arena 30. Assignment from the top down.
Step 8. After the ancillary nets are absorbed and adjusted, abode the top net over the pallet. The abandon of the net with bristles straps (A through E) are placed on the continued ancillary of the pallet.
Step 9. Attach A to 12, B to 13, C to 14, D to 15, E to 16, F to 17, G to 18, H to 19, and I to 20.
Step 10. Finish adhering the blow of the top net to the added ancillary net in the aforementioned address as in footfall 9 (Figure 18-5).
Figure 18-5. Top applique procedures
Step 11. Tighten all the nets.
Step 12. Attach the 4 J hooks to the 4 K rings. These straps go about the bend of the burden on the pallet.
Step 13. Defended the ends of the straps; constrict them in to ensure that they will not get angled in the abuse arrangement back loading the bassinet aboard the aircraft (Figure 18-6).
Figure 18-6. Typical net attachment
18-5. MULTI-PALLETIZATION. Back aircraft burden that exceeds the ambit of the 463L pallet, two or added pallets may be abutting together. This is referred to as marrying the pallets. Back two pallets are married, they are referred to as a bifold bassinet or a two-pallet train. The aforementioned applies to three, four, or bristles pallets affiliated together.
a. Audit the Pallet. Afore pallets can be married, cadre charge audit them on the top, bottom, and abandon to ensure that they are in acceptable condition. The acme and cheers should be apple-pie and in acceptable repair. The ancillary balustrade should not be bowed, and the tie-down rings should be deeply mounted.
b. Marry the Pallets. After the pallets acquire been inspected and accepted, they can be married. Abode the pallets on the burden loading berth (Figure 18-7) so that the intents and detents on the continued ancillary of the pallets are aligned.
Figure 18-7. Loading dock
(1) Placement of spacers. Once the pallets are aligned, put spacers amid the pallets (Figure 18-8) amid the two ends in the indents and detents. Use at atomic two spacers amid the pallets actuality married; use added if necessary. The spacers accumulate the pallets in band and appropriately spaced so that they will lock into the abuse arrangement of the aircraft (Figure 18-9).
NOTE: Spacers are locally bogus out of two pieces of 3/4-inch plywood.
Figure 18-8. Use of spacers
Figure 18-9. Sampler spacer
(2) Accepting the pallets together. Use tie-down accessories to alternation pallets together. Figure 18-10 shows two methods of marrying pallets. These accessories are accessible in the unit.
c. Loading Burden on Affiliated Pallets. Continued abundant burden is loaded aboriginal and broadcast over the pallets to anticipate them from acceptable abundant ended. Ablaze burden is ample on top and forth the abandon of the abundant cargo. If burden is labeled, accomplish assertive that the labels face out and are visible. Figure 18-11 shows the able use of bassinet barriers.
(1) Weight distribution. Administer the weight analogously over all the pallets. Never beat the ambit and weight banned for the appointed aircraft.
Figure 18-10. Methods of marrying pallets
Figure 18-11. Bassinet barrier
(2) Accountability. Account anniversary account as it is loaded on the pallet. Accomplish abiding that the account bedding announce that the bassinet is married. Attach one archetype of the account breadth to the cargo.
d. Tie-Down Techniques. Some of the key techniques of attached bottomward ample items are as follows:
(1) Use a advanced barrier or absorber lath and a alternation aboideau for apart abundant cargo, such as helicopter blades or covering poles.
(2) Use alternation and accessories for ample items such as canned engines and wheeled equipment. Never put added than 50 percent of the tie-downs on axles of wheeled equipment.
(3) Use 463L nets for apart or ablaze items such as baby boxes.
(4) Always use a alternation aboideau (Figure 18-12) for abundant items such as ample cases or reels.
Figure 18-12. Alternation gate
18-6. STORAGE OF 463L PALLETS AND NETS. With reasonable affliction and protection, the 463L bassinet and their burden nets should aftermost indefinitely. Acceptable administration ensures that able affliction is taken in administration and autumn pallets and nets.
a. Accumulator of pallets. Cadre should chase these steps:
(1) Apple-pie anniversary bassinet afore it is stored.
(2) Audit the top and basal of anniversary pallet.
NOTE: Pallets with dents, gouges, or scratches that do not breach the bark can be kept and stored. If the bassinet has angled rails, missing tie-down rings, or holes, or if the metal bark is peeling, about-face it in for repair.
(3) Stack pallets boarded up. If pallets are ample upside down, the tie-down rings will be damaged and the bark will be torn.
(4) Stack pallets 40 anxiety high, with three pieces of dunnage amid anniversary accumulation of 10 pallets.
b. Accumulator of burden nets. Cadre should chase these steps:
(1) Lay out anniversary set of nets and audit for break in the fiber or straps, tears breadth the fiber is sewn, or missing rings, hooks, or attachments.
NOTE: If you adios one of the nets for damage, accelerate the complete set in for aliment and repair.
(2) Apple-pie and dry the nets afore they are stored.
(3) Lay out the two ancillary nets and the top net. Fold them, and again defended the three nets together.
(4) Stack and abundance the nets in sets in a dry and aerial accumulator area.
18-7. CH-47 HICHS. General advice and the loading methods of this arrangement are discussed below.
a. General. The HICHS is a cargo-handling arrangement that provides low abrasion load/unload agent ramps. It additionally includes conveyors for affective burden aural the aircraft. Figure 18-13 shows the HICHS installed in a CH-47 helicopter. The absolute weight of the HICHS is 825 pounds. The HICHS consists of three sections (see Figure 18-14).
Figure 18-13. HICHS installed in a CH-47 helicopter
(1) Cabin/cargo area. This breadth is fabricated up of three outboard rail/roller assemblies on anniversary ancillary of the cabin. The assemblies use twenty-six 5K tie-down applicable assemblies, eight 10K applicable assemblies, and two tie-down applicable assemblies. Four inboard guide/roller assemblies are army forth the centerline of the berth floor. They are anchored with 10 centerline arena bung assemblies to the 5K rings in the floor.
(2) Access section. The access breadth of the arrangement includes a right-hand access adviser rail-roller accumulation and a right-hand access inboard guide/roller assembly. There are additionally left-hand assemblies. A abstracted access abutment (see Figure 18-14) is acclimated during loading and auction operations.
Figure 18-14. Three sections of the CH-47 HICHS
(3) Access addendum section. There are two access addendum roller assemblies and two access addendum abutment assemblies.
b. Loading Operations. The loading methods for the CH-47 HICHS are as follows:
(1) 463L pallets. Up to three pallets may be winched or manually loaded on the HICHS. Figure 18-13 shows the loading of 463L palletized cargo.
(2) Barn pallets. These are the accepted 40- x 48-inch pallet. Back they are loaded, the 40-inch ancillary of the bassinet should be positioned beyond the administration arrangement so that the 48-inch ancillary is on the access adviser rail. Eight to ten barn pallets can be loaded aboard the helicopter. During the loading, the bassinet should be forklifted assimilate the access addendum and counterbalanced assimilate the outboard roller. Pallets may be winched or manually pushed into place. On the ramp, the bassinet should be pushed outboard.
(3) Weight restrictions. Individual pallets may counterbalance up to 3,700 pounds. Pallets belief 2,150 pounds or beneath may be loaded after any problem. However, in adjustment to advance attic isolation, the sum of the weights of longitudinally adjoining pallets charge not beat 4,300 pounds.
(a) A mix of pallets weighing, for example, 3,000 and 1,200 pounds, requires alternating loading.
(b) If the amount consists of alone pallets, anniversary belief added than 2,150 pounds, the pallets MUST be spaced longitudinally. To actuate the ambit appropriate for spacing, use this formula: Weight in pounds disconnected by 45.2 equals ambit in inches from centermost of one bassinet to the centermost of the adjoining pallet. To actuate agreement appropriate for a amount of pallets belief 3,000 pounds each, accomplish this computation: 3,000 disconnected by 45.2 equals 66 inches centermost to center.
(c) Pallets spaced longitudinally crave tie-downs for longitudinal, lateral, and vertical forces. There is no claim to use a barrier system.
(4) Wheeled vehicles. These can be either winched in or manually loaded. For agent loading and specific tie-down procedures, accredit to FM 55-450-2.
(5) Personnel. The HICHS can backpack cadre only, or both burden and personnel. If both are loaded, burden handlers should amount the burden advanced of the personnel.
18-8. SHORING. Shoring consists of board planks or agnate abstracts placed on the burden attic or accouter of the aircraft. Bristles basal types of shoring are acclimated back loading aircraft: approach, rolling, parking, bridge, and sleeper shoring. Illustrations of these shoring types are independent in FM 55-9. Two aloft purposes for application shoring aboard aircraft follows.
a. Aegis of the Aircraft Floor. All tracked cartage with metal cleats and studs, and cartage with animate auto crave a minimum of 3/4-inch shoring. Shoring is appropriate additionally for burden in drums, bivouac tongues, or any added article that could break or cavity the aircraft floor. Shoring prevents metal-to-metal acquaintance eliminating sparking acquired by the skidding of cargo.
NOTE: The user is amenable for capacity all types of dunnage that may be required.
b. Administration of Weight. Appropriately laid shoring will administer weight analogously over a ample area. The psi of burden placed on the aircraft attic may be aloft the defined attic limits. Distributing this weight analogously and over a greater breadth allows a amount of higher-than-normal weight absorption to be carried.
(1) The weight of the amount comatose on shoring is not advance appropriately over the absolute breadth of acquaintance amid the shoring and the surface. To access the breadth over which a amount is distributed, extend a even fatigued bottomward and apparent from the borderline band of acquaintance of the amount at a 45-degree angle, until it intersects the apparent on which the shoring rests (Figure 18-15). Shoring increases the breadth of acquaintance about according to the shoring array on all abandon of the object. A 2-inch array of shoring increases the breadth of acquaintance by about 2 inches on all abandon of the account comatose on it. This overextension aftereffect of weight by simple shoring is the aforementioned behindhand of the appearance of the breadth of contact.
Figure 18-15. Increasing an breadth by shoring
NOTE: Backpack answers alone to the tenth place. Always access psi answers to the abutting college tenth if there is any remainder. Never access breadth answers to the abutting college tenth behindhand of the remainder.
(d) Circular butt with rim. The weight, disconnected by the alfresco bore additional the central diameter, times the difference, times .785.
(e) Annoy pad. Weight of the arbor disconnected by length, times amplitude of annoy pad, times .785, times the cardinal of tires on the axle. (Each arbor of a agent charge be computed separately.)
(3) Determining the breadth of acquaintance application shoring.
NOTE: Shoring is alone able up to 2 inches in thickness.
(b) If shoring 2 inches blubbery is laid beneath an article that has a abject of 50 inches by 40 inches and weighs 4,000 pounds, add 2 inches to the ambit in anniversary administration of the base.
50 inches 2 inches x 40 inches 2 inches = 52 x 42 = 2,184 aboveboard inches of contact
Use of shoring to access the breadth of acquaintance will abatement the psi. Shoring can accomplish the aberration amid accustomed and not accustomed a accustomed allotment of accessories or load.
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